gNowadays the general public has medication prescribed and sometimes not for different kinds of ailments. Every other ailment, from a slight sneeze to a major diseased illness, we seem to have our hands full with drugs aka medicines. While some have questions about what they are being prescribed, most plainly agree to the prescribed drugs and gulp it down with the hope of gettin better. Thankfully, people do get better. However, it is always a good notion to know before you have it. having knowledge about things like medicines and drugs is the utmost important aspect of fighting any kind of illness.
So, if we are to ask you what Modafinil, armodafinil or adrafinil is, would you be able to tell us? Most of us probably haven’t even heard of the term for medicinal names are more than the proper nouns the dictionary has to provide. Hence, today we are going to give you an elaborate description of what these medications are and everything related to it.
Please note: All of these 3 medicines are Eugeroic. Meaning, they are wakefulness promoting agents and wakefulness promoting drugs. They are all used for treating sleeping disorders, excessive sleepiness, and narcolepsy. Intake of these medications improves alertness and wakefulness.
Modafinil is prescribed to people who suffer from extreme drowsiness. There are people who suffer from narcolepsy, a disorder where a person falls asleep during the day. Modafinil is used for patients who suffer from such an illness. Also, a person who happens to feel weak and is unable to focus on anything often opts for this medication. Modafinil has the active effects that help increasing wakefulness, memory, focus, and energy in people who suffer from such an odd ailment. It is a prescription drug that makes it impossible to acquire without a prescription for it has nootropic effects on the consumer.
The mechanism of action that takes place in Modafinil for the various illnesses is still unknown. For modafinil acts like a typical and selective, weak dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) and blocks the action of a dopamine transporter (DAT). It indirectly activates the release of orexin neuropeptides and histamine from the lateral hypothalamic area and tuberomammillary nucleus that contribute to heightened arousal. Research has found that modafinil elevates histamine levels in the hypothalamic area of animals.
- Adverse effects
- Consumers often suffer from severe headaches
- Patients have known to suffer from nervousness, diarrhea, anxiety, dizziness, and insomnia
- Patients often suffer from gastrointestinal problems after consumption of heavy dosage of this medication
- Overdose causes life-threatening effects
- Causes irritability, palpitations, and tremors
The term Armodafinil is the phonetic [pronunciation of its chemical name ‘R – Modafinil’. It is an FDA approved a drug that is used to treat narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness associated with apnoea and shift work disorder. This medication is also used off-label to treat ADFD that is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, major depressive disorder, and chronic fatigue syndrome. All of these disorders are associated with the body losing all its energy and giving up to this odd illness where you feel nothing and fall off to sleep whenever possible. The use of Armodafinil is said to improve vigilance in air traffic controllers for they have to stay alert at all times.
The action mechanism of Armodafinil is yet to be known. It has pharmacological properties that are identical to modafinil (a mixture of R- (-) and S- (+) modafinil). The R and S enantiomers have similar action when used on animals. Armodafinil has wakefulness promoting agents that are similar to amphetamine and methylphenidate that are known as sympathomimetic agents. However, its pharmacological profile is not similar or identical to sympathomimetic amines. Armodafinil indirectly acts as a dopamine receptor agonist and binds in vitro to the dopamine transporter (DAT). Also, in addition to wake-promoting effects and increased locomotor abilities in animals, Armodafinil also produces psychoactive and euphoric effects on consumers.
- Adverse effects
- A most common side effect of Armodafinil use is a headache
- It also causes dry mouth or Xerostomia
- Consumers are known to suffer from dizziness, insomnia, and nausea
- An overdose of Armodafinil causes trouble sleeping, confusion, restlessness, mania, hallucinations and increased/decreased heartbeat causing chest pains
- Other side effects include anorexia, aggression, and suicidal thoughts
Adrafinil is another type of eugeroic medication which was formerly used in France for treating attention disorders, wakefulness, alertness, mood fluctuations and various other stages and types of disorders that affect the sleep and wakefulness in a person. Also, Adrafinil was used off-label by individuals who suffered fatigue during the day or night and needed it to be cured to avoid other disabilities that the illness caused in their professional and personal lives. Adrafinil too is a nootropic drug agent which makes it a prescription drug for purchase and use. It is a prodrug, that is primarily metabolized in vivo to Modafinil. Hence, it resulted in similar pharmacological effects. However, unlike Modafinil, Adrafinil takes time to metabolize to accumulate to active levels in the bloodstream. The effects are visible apparently within 45 to 0 mins of intake.
Researchers have noted that both Modafinil and adrafinil serve as α1-adrenergic receptor agonists. However, failing to bind together, they lack the peripheral sympathomimetic side effects which are associated with the activation of this receptor (α1-adrenergic receptor). Hence, the research is weak that gives way for a more probable mechanism of the action of this medicine. However, it is duly said that Modafinil has stronger effects when it comes to the blocking dopamine transporter that Adrafinil.
- Adverse effects
- It causes skin irritation
- It causes severe stomach ache and elevated levels of liver enzymes with prolonged use of Adrafinil
- It causes anxiety, insomnia, and dizziness
Note: Not for use in children. They are nootropic drugs.
Well, this general information about these three drugs is not only helping it will also an aide to people who are thoughtlessly consuming them. While you might feel good after consumption of any of this nootropic drug/medication, please keep in mind the adverse effects that you would be experiencing.